烟雾测试

本部分将会运行一系列的测试来验证 Kubernetes 集群的功能正常。

数据加密

本节将会验证 encrypt secret data at rest 的功能。

创建一个 Secret:

kubectl create secret generic kubernetes-the-hard-way \
--from-literal="mykey=mydata"

查询存在 etcd 里 16 进位编码的 kubernetes-the-hard-way secret:

gcloud compute ssh controller-0 \
--command "sudo ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get \
--endpoints=https://127.0.0.1:2379 \
--cacert=/etc/etcd/ca.pem \
--cert=/etc/etcd/kubernetes.pem \
--key=/etc/etcd/kubernetes-key.pem\
/registry/secrets/default/kubernetes-the-hard-way | hexdump -C"

输出为

00000000 2f 72 65 67 69 73 74 72 79 2f 73 65 63 72 65 74 |/registry/secret|
00000010 73 2f 64 65 66 61 75 6c 74 2f 6b 75 62 65 72 6e |s/default/kubern|
00000020 65 74 65 73 2d 74 68 65 2d 68 61 72 64 2d 77 61 |etes-the-hard-wa|
00000030 79 0a 6b 38 73 3a 65 6e 63 3a 61 65 73 63 62 63 |y.k8s:enc:aescbc|
00000040 3a 76 31 3a 6b 65 79 31 3a ea 7c 76 32 43 62 6f |:v1:key1:.|v2Cbo|
00000050 44 02 02 8c b7 ca fe 95 a5 33 f6 a1 18 6c 3d 53 |D........3...l=S|
00000060 e7 9c 51 ee 32 f6 e4 17 ea bb 11 d5 2f e2 40 00 |..Q.2......./.@.|
00000070 ae cf d9 e7 ba 7f 68 18 d3 c1 10 10 93 43 35 bd |......h......C5.|
00000080 24 dd 66 b4 f8 f9 82 77 4a d5 78 03 19 41 1e bc |$.f....wJ.x..A..|
00000090 94 3f 17 41 ad cc 8c ba 9f 8f 8e 56 97 7e 96 fb |.?.A.......V.~..|
000000a0 8f 2e 6a a5 bf 08 1f 0b c3 4b 2b 93 d1 ec f8 70 |..j......K+....p|
000000b0 c1 e4 1d 1a d2 0d f8 74 3a a1 4f 3c e0 c9 6d 3f |.......t:.O<..m?|
000000c0 de a3 f5 fd 76 aa 5e bc 27 d9 3c 6b 8f 54 97 45 |....v.^.'.<k.T.E|
000000d0 31 25 ff 23 90 a4 2a f2 db 78 b1 3b ca 21 f3 6b |1%.#..*..x.;.!.k|
000000e0 dd fb 8e 53 c6 23 0d 35 c8 0a |...S.#.5..|
000000ea

Etcd 的密钥以 k8s:enc:aescbc:v1:key1 为前缀, 表示使用密钥为 key1aescbc 加密数据。

部署

本节将会验证建立与管理 Deployments 的功能。

创建一个 Deployment 用来搭建 nginx Web 服务:

kubectl run nginx --image=nginx

列出 nginx deployment 的 pods:

kubectl get pods -l run=nginx

输出为

NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
nginx-4217019353-b5gzn 1/1 Running 0 15s

端口转发

本节将会验证使用 port forwarding 从远端进入容器的功能。

查询 nginx pod 的全名:

POD_NAME=$(kubectl get pods -l run=nginx -o jsonpath="{.items[0].metadata.name}")

将本地机器的 8080 端口转发到 nginx pod 的 80 端口:

kubectl port-forward $POD_NAME 8080:80

输出为

Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:8080 -> 80
Forwarding from [::1]:8080 -> 80

开一个新的终端来做 HTTP 请求测试:

curl --head http://127.0.0.1:8080

输出为

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.13.5
Date: Mon, 02 Oct 2017 01:04:20 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 15:25:00 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "5989d7cc-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes

回到前面的终端并按下 Ctrl + C 停止 port forwarding 命令:

Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:8080 -> 80
Forwarding from [::1]:8080 -> 80
Handling connection for 8080
^C

容器日志

本节会验证 获取容器日志 的功能。

输出 nginx Pod 的容器日志:

kubectl logs $POD_NAME

输出为

127.0.0.1 - - [02/Oct/2017:01:04:20 +0000] "HEAD / HTTP/1.1" 200 0 "-" "curl/7.54.0" "-"

执行容器命令

本节将验证 在容器里执行命令 的功能。

使用 nginx -v 命令在 nginx Pod 中输出 nginx 的版本:

kubectl exec -ti $POD_NAME -- nginx -v

输出为

nginx version: nginx/1.13.7

服务(Service)

本节将验证 Kubernetes Service

nginx 部署导出为 NodePort 类型的 Service:

kubectl expose deployment nginx --port 80 --type NodePort

LoadBalancer 类型的 Service 不能使用是因为没有设置 cloud provider 集成。 设定 cloud provider 不在本教程范围之内。

查询 nginx 服务分配的 Node Port:

NODE_PORT=$(kubectl get svc nginx \
--output=jsonpath='{range .spec.ports[0]}{.nodePort}')

建立防火墙规则允许外网访问该 Node 端口:

gcloud compute firewall-rules create kubernetes-the-hard-way-allow-nginx-service \
--allow=tcp:${NODE_PORT} \
--network kubernetes-the-hard-way

查询 worker 节点的外网 IP 地址:

EXTERNAL_IP=$(gcloud compute instances describe worker-0 \
--format 'value(networkInterfaces[0].accessConfigs[0].natIP)')

对得到的外网 IP 地址 + nginx 服务的 Node Port 做 HTTP 请求测试:

curl -I http://${EXTERNAL_IP}:${NODE_PORT}

输出为

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.13.7
Date: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 14:52:09 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:28:04 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "5a1437f4-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes

非可信应用

非可信应用可以运行在 gVisor 容器引擎之中。

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: untrusted
annotations:
io.kubernetes.cri.untrusted-workload: "true"
spec:
containers:
- name: webserver
image: gcr.io/hightowerlabs/helloworld:2.0.0
EOF

验证

kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE
busybox-68654f944b-djjjb 1/1 Running 0 5m 10.200.0.2 worker-0
nginx-65899c769f-xkfcn 1/1 Running 0 4m 10.200.1.2 worker-1
untrusted 1/1 Running 0 10s 10.200.0.3 worker-0

查看 untrusted Pod 运行信息

# SSH to the node
INSTANCE_NAME=$(kubectl get pod untrusted --output=jsonpath='{.spec.nodeName}')
gcloud compute ssh ${INSTANCE_NAME}
# List the containers running under gVisor
sudo runsc --root /run/containerd/runsc/k8s.io list

输出

I0514 14:03:56.108368 14988 x:0] ***************************
I0514 14:03:56.108548 14988 x:0] Args: [runsc --root /run/containerd/runsc/k8s.io list]
I0514 14:03:56.108730 14988 x:0] Git Revision: 08879266fef3a67fac1a77f1ea133c3ac75759dd
I0514 14:03:56.108787 14988 x:0] PID: 14988
I0514 14:03:56.108838 14988 x:0] UID: 0, GID: 0
I0514 14:03:56.108877 14988 x:0] Configuration:
I0514 14:03:56.108912 14988 x:0] RootDir: /run/containerd/runsc/k8s.io
I0514 14:03:56.109000 14988 x:0] Platform: ptrace
I0514 14:03:56.109080 14988 x:0] FileAccess: proxy, overlay: false
I0514 14:03:56.109159 14988 x:0] Network: sandbox, logging: false
I0514 14:03:56.109238 14988 x:0] Strace: false, max size: 1024, syscalls: []
I0514 14:03:56.109315 14988 x:0] ***************************
ID PID STATUS BUNDLE CREATED OWNER
3528c6b270c76858e15e10ede61bd1100b77519e7c9972d51b370d6a3c60adbb 14766 running /run/containerd/io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux/k8s.io/3528c6b270c76858e15e10ede61bd1100b77519e7c9972d51b370d6a3c60adbb 2018-05-14T14:02:34.302378996Z
7ff747c919c2dcf31e64d7673340885138317c91c7c51ec6302527df680ba981 14716 running /run/containerd/io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux/k8s.io/7ff747c919c2dcf31e64d7673340885138317c91c7c51ec6302527df680ba981 2018-05-14T14:02:32.159552044Z
I0514 14:03:56.111287 14988 x:0] Exiting with status: 0

查询容器中的进程

POD_ID=$(sudo crictl -r unix:///var/run/containerd/containerd.sock \
pods --name untrusted -q)
CONTAINER_ID=$(sudo crictl -r unix:///var/run/containerd/containerd.sock \
ps -p ${POD_ID} -q)
sudo runsc --root /run/containerd/runsc/k8s.io ps ${CONTAINER_ID}

输出

I0514 14:05:16.499237 15096 x:0] ***************************
I0514 14:05:16.499542 15096 x:0] Args: [runsc --root /run/containerd/runsc/k8s.io ps 3528c6b270c76858e15e10ede61bd1100b77519e7c9972d51b370d6a3c60adbb]
I0514 14:05:16.499597 15096 x:0] Git Revision: 08879266fef3a67fac1a77f1ea133c3ac75759dd
I0514 14:05:16.499644 15096 x:0] PID: 15096
I0514 14:05:16.499695 15096 x:0] UID: 0, GID: 0
I0514 14:05:16.499734 15096 x:0] Configuration:
I0514 14:05:16.499769 15096 x:0] RootDir: /run/containerd/runsc/k8s.io
I0514 14:05:16.499880 15096 x:0] Platform: ptrace
I0514 14:05:16.499962 15096 x:0] FileAccess: proxy, overlay: false
I0514 14:05:16.500042 15096 x:0] Network: sandbox, logging: false
I0514 14:05:16.500120 15096 x:0] Strace: false, max size: 1024, syscalls: []
I0514 14:05:16.500197 15096 x:0] ***************************
UID PID PPID C STIME TIME CMD
0 1 0 0 14:02 40ms app
I0514 14:05:16.501354 15096 x:0] Exiting with status: 0

下一步:删除集群