Kubernetes 101

Last updated 7 months ago

体验 Kubernetes 最简单的方法是跑一个 nginx 容器,然后使用 kubectl 操作该容器。Kubernetes 提供了一个类似于 docker run 的命令 kubectl run,可以方便的创建一个容器(实际上创建的是一个由 deployment 来管理的 Pod):

$ kubectl run --image=nginx:alpine nginx-app --port=80
deployment "nginx-app" created
$ kubectl get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i 1/1 Running 0 52s

等到容器变成 Running 后,就可以用 kubectl 命令来操作它了,比如

  • kubectl get - 类似于 docker ps,查询资源列表

  • kubectl describe - 类似于 docker inspect,获取资源的详细信息

  • kubectl logs - 类似于 docker logs,获取容器的日志

  • kubectl exec - 类似于 docker exec,在容器内执行一个命令

$ kubectl get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i 1/1 Running 0 6m
$ kubectl exec nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i ps aux
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
root 1 0.0 0.5 31736 5108 ? Ss 00:19 0:00 nginx: master process nginx -g daemon off;
nginx 5 0.0 0.2 32124 2844 ? S 00:19 0:00 nginx: worker process
root 18 0.0 0.2 17500 2112 ? Rs 00:25 0:00 ps aux
$ kubectl describe pod nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i
Name: nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i
Namespace: default
Node: boot2docker/192.168.64.12
Start Time: Tue, 06 Sep 2016 08:18:41 +0800
Labels: pod-template-hash=4028413181
run=nginx-app
Status: Running
IP: 172.17.0.3
Controllers: ReplicaSet/nginx-app-4028413181
Containers:
nginx-app:
Container ID: docker://4ef989b57d0a7638ad9c5bbc22e16d5ea5b459281c77074fc982eba50973107f
Image: nginx
Image ID: docker://sha256:4efb2fcdb1ab05fb03c9435234343c1cc65289eeb016be86193e88d3a5d84f6b
Port: 80/TCP
State: Running
Started: Tue, 06 Sep 2016 08:19:30 +0800
Ready: True
Restart Count: 0
Environment Variables: <none>
Conditions:
Type Status
Initialized True
Ready True
PodScheduled True
Volumes:
default-token-9o8ks:
Type: Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
SecretName: default-token-9o8ks
QoS Tier: BestEffort
Events:
FirstSeen LastSeen Count From SubobjectPath Type Reason Message
--------- -------- ----- ---- ------------- -------- ------ -------
8m 8m 1 {default-scheduler} Normal Scheduled Successfully assigned nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i to boot2docker
8m 8m 1 {kubelet boot2docker} spec.containers{nginx-app} Normal Pulling pulling image "nginx"
7m 7m 1 {kubelet boot2docker} spec.containers{nginx-app} Normal Pulled Successfully pulled image "nginx"
7m 7m 1 {kubelet boot2docker} spec.containers{nginx-app} Normal Created Created container with docker id 4ef989b57d0a
7m 7m 1 {kubelet boot2docker} spec.containers{nginx-app} Normal Started Started container with docker id 4ef989b57d0a
$ curl http://172.17.0.3
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
body {
width: 35em;
margin: 0 auto;
font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>
<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>
<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>
$ kubectl logs nginx-app-4028413181-cnt1i
127.0.0.1 - - [06/Sep/2016:00:27:13 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.0" 200 612 "-" "-" "-"

使用 yaml 定义 Pod

上面是通过 kubectl run 来启动了第一个 Pod,但是 kubectl run 并不支持所有的功能。在 Kubernetes 中,更经常使用 yaml 文件来定义资源,并通过 kubectl create -f file.yaml 来创建资源。比如,一个简单的 nginx Pod 可以定义为:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: nginx
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
containers:
- name: nginx
image: nginx
ports:
- containerPort: 80

前面提到,kubectl run 并不是直接创建一个 Pod,而是先创建一个 Deployment 资源(replicas=1),再由与 Deployment 关联的 ReplicaSet 来自动创建 Pod,这等价于这样一个配置:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
labels:
run: nginx-app
name: nginx-app
namespace: default
spec:
replicas: 1
selector:
matchLabels:
run: nginx-app
strategy:
rollingUpdate:
maxSurge: 1
maxUnavailable: 1
type: RollingUpdate
template:
metadata:
labels:
run: nginx-app
spec:
containers:
- image: nginx
name: nginx-app
ports:
- containerPort: 80
protocol: TCP
dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
restartPolicy: Always

使用 Volume

Pod 的生命周期通常比较短,只要出现了异常,就会创建一个新的 Pod 来代替它。那容器产生的数据呢?容器内的数据会随着 Pod 消亡而自动消失。Volume 就是为了持久化容器数据而生,比如可以为 redis 容器指定一个 hostPath 来存储 redis 数据:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: redis
spec:
containers:
- name: redis
image: redis
volumeMounts:
- name: redis-persistent-storage
mountPath: /data/redis
volumes:
- name: redis-persistent-storage
hostPath:
path: /data/

Kubernetes volume 支持非常多的插件,可以根据实际需要来选择:

  • emptyDir

  • hostPath

  • gcePersistentDisk

  • awsElasticBlockStore

  • nfs

  • iscsi

  • flocker

  • glusterfs

  • rbd

  • cephfs

  • gitRepo

  • secret

  • persistentVolumeClaim

  • downwardAPI

  • azureFileVolume

  • vsphereVolume

使用 Service

前面虽然创建了 Pod,但是在 kubernetes 中,Pod 的 IP 地址会随着 Pod 的重启而变化,并不建议直接拿 Pod 的 IP 来交互。那如何来访问这些 Pod 提供的服务呢?使用 Service。Service 为一组 Pod(通过 labels 来选择)提供一个统一的入口,并为它们提供负载均衡和自动服务发现。比如,可以为前面的 nginx-app 创建一个 service:

$ kubectl expose deployment nginx-app --port=80 --target-port=80 --type=NodePort
service "nginx-app" exposed
$ kubectl describe service nginx-app
Name: nginx-app
Namespace: default
Labels: run=nginx-app
Selector: run=nginx-app
Type: ClusterIP
IP: 10.0.0.66
Port: <unset> 80/TCP
NodePort: <unset> 30772/TCP
Endpoints: 172.17.0.3:80
Session Affinity: None
No events.

这样,在 cluster 内部就可以通过 http://10.0.0.66http://node-ip:30772 来访问 nginx-app。而在 cluster 外面,则只能通过 http://node-ip:30772 来访问。