API 扩展
Kubernetes 的架构非常灵活,提供了从 API、认证授权、准入控制、网络、存储、运行时以及云平台等一系列的扩展机制,方便用户无侵入的扩展集群的功能。
从 API 的角度来说,可以通过 Aggregation 和 CustomResourceDefinition(CRD) 等扩展 Kubernetes API。
  • API Aggregation 允许在不修改 Kubernetes 核心代码的同时将第三方服务注册到 Kubernetes API 中,这样就可以通过 Kubernetes API 来访问外部服务。
  • CustomResourceDefinition 则可以在集群中新增资源对象,并可以与已有资源对象(如 Pod、Deployment 等)相同的方式来管理它们。
CRD 相比 Aggregation 更易用,两者对比如下
CRDs
Aggregated API
无需编程即可使用 CRD 管理资源
需要使用 Go 来构建 Aggregated APIserver
不需要运行额外服务,但一般需要一个 CRD 控制器同步和管理这些资源
需要独立的第三方服务
任何缺陷都会在 Kubernetes 核心中修复
可能需要定期从 Kubernetes 社区同步缺陷修复方法并重新构建 Aggregated APIserver.
无需额外管理版本
需要第三方服务来管理版本
更多的特性对比
Feature
Description
CRDs
Aggregated API
Validation
Help users prevent errors and allow you to evolve your API independently of your clients. These features are most useful when there are many clients who can’t all update at the same time.
Yes. Most validation can be specified in the CRD using OpenAPI v3.0 validation. Any other validations supported by addition of a Validating Webhook.
Yes, arbitrary validation checks
Defaulting
See above
Yes, via a Mutating Webhook; Planned, via CRD OpenAPI schema.
Yes
Multi-versioning
Allows serving the same object through two API versions. Can help ease API changes like renaming fields. Less important if you control your client versions.
No, but planned
Yes
Custom Storage
If you need storage with a different performance mode (for example, time-series database instead of key-value store) or isolation for security (for example, encryption secrets or different
No
Yes
Custom Business Logic
Perform arbitrary checks or actions when creating, reading, updating or deleting an object
Yes, using Webhooks.
Yes
Scale Subresource
Allows systems like HorizontalPodAutoscaler and PodDisruptionBudget interact with your new resource
Yes
Yes
Status Subresource
Finer-grained access control: user writes spec section, controller writes status section.Allows incrementing object Generation on custom resource data mutation (requires separate spec and status sections in the resource)
Yes
Yes
Other Subresources
Add operations other than CRUD, such as “logs” or “exec”.
No
Yes
strategic-merge-patch
The new endpoints support PATCH with Content-Type: application/strategic-merge-patch+json. Useful for updating objects that may be modified both locally, and by the server. For more information, see “Update API Objects in Place Using kubectl patch”
No, but similar functionality planned
Yes
Protocol Buffers
The new resource supports clients that want to use Protocol Buffers
No
Yes
OpenAPI Schema
Is there an OpenAPI (swagger) schema for the types that can be dynamically fetched from the server? Is the user protected from misspelling field names by ensuring only allowed fields are set? Are types enforced (in other words, don’t put an int in a string field?)
No, but planned
Yes

使用方法

详细的使用方法请参考
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