ReplicaSet

ReplicationController(也简称为 rc)用来确保容器应用的副本数始终保持在用户定义的副本数,即如果有容器异常退出,会自动创建新的 Pod 来替代;而异常多出来的容器也会自动回收。ReplicationController 的典型应用场景包括确保健康 Pod 的数量、弹性伸缩、滚动升级以及应用多版本发布跟踪等。

在新版本的 Kubernetes 中建议使用 ReplicaSet(也简称为 rs)来取代 ReplicationController。ReplicaSet 跟 ReplicationController 没有本质的不同,只是名字不一样,并且 ReplicaSet 支持集合式的 selector(ReplicationController 仅支持等式)。

虽然也 ReplicaSet 可以独立使用,但建议使用 Deployment 来自动管理 ReplicaSet,这样就无需担心跟其他机制的不兼容问题(比如 ReplicaSet 不支持 rolling-update 但 Deployment 支持),并且还支持版本记录、回滚、暂停升级等高级特性。Deployment 的详细介绍和使用方法见 这里

API 版本对照表

Kubernetes 版本

Deployment 版本

v1.5-v1.6

extensions/v1beta1

v1.7-v1.15

apps/v1beta1

v1.8-v1.15

apps/v1beta2

v1.9+

apps/v1

ReplicationController 示例

apiVersion: v1
kind: ReplicationController
metadata:
name: nginx
spec:
replicas: 3
selector:
app: nginx
template:
metadata:
name: nginx
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
containers:
- name: nginx
image: nginx
ports:
- containerPort: 80

ReplicaSet 示例

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: ReplicaSet
metadata:
name: frontend
# these labels can be applied automatically
# from the labels in the pod template if not set
# labels:
# app: guestbook
# tier: frontend
spec:
# this replicas value is default
# modify it according to your case
replicas: 3
# selector can be applied automatically
# from the labels in the pod template if not set,
# but we are specifying the selector here to
# demonstrate its usage.
selector:
matchLabels:
tier: frontend
matchExpressions:
- {key: tier, operator: In, values: [frontend]}
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: guestbook
tier: frontend
spec:
containers:
- name: php-redis
image: gcr.io/google_samples/gb-frontend:v3
resources:
requests:
cpu: 100m
memory: 100Mi
env:
- name: GET_HOSTS_FROM
value: dns
# If your cluster config does not include a dns service, then to
# instead access environment variables to find service host
# info, comment out the 'value: dns' line above, and uncomment the
# line below.
# value: env
ports:
- containerPort: 80